What type of rock is formed when magma cools on the Earth’s surface?


When magma, which is molten rock, cools and solidifies on the Earth’s surface, it leads to the formation of igneous rocks. Igneous rocks are one of the three main types of rocks, along with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. In this article, we will explore the different types of igneous rocks that are formed when magma cools on the Earth’s surface.

Igneous Rocks: An Introduction

Igneous rocks are formed through the solidification and crystallization of molten rock material. This molten rock material, known as magma, is generated from the Earth’s mantle or crust through various geological processes. When magma cools, it undergoes a process called solidification, where it transforms from a liquid state to a solid state.

The Cooling Process of Magma

The cooling process of magma can occur in two different environments: intrusive and extrusive. In the intrusive environment, the magma cools and solidifies beneath the Earth’s surface, resulting in the formation of intrusive igneous rocks. On the other hand, in the extrusive environment, the magma reaches the Earth’s surface and cools rapidly, leading to the formation of extrusive igneous rocks.

Intrusive Igneous Rocks

Intrusive igneous rocks are formed when magma cools slowly beneath the Earth’s surface. As the magma cools, the minerals within it crystallize and interlock, forming a solid rock mass. The slow cooling process allows for larger mineral crystals to develop, giving intrusive igneous rocks a coarse-grained texture. Examples of intrusive igneous rocks include granite, diorite, and gabbro.

Extrusive Igneous Rocks

Extrusive igneous rocks, also known as volcanic rocks, are formed when magma reaches the Earth’s surface and cools rapidly. Due to the rapid cooling, the minerals in the magma do not have sufficient time to grow large crystals, resulting in a fine-grained or glassy texture. Examples of extrusive igneous rocks include basalt, andesite, and rhyolite.

The Influence of Mineral Composition

While the cooling process plays a significant role in determining the texture of igneous rocks, the mineral composition of the magma also greatly influences the type of rock that is formed. Different minerals have different melting and crystallization points, leading to the formation of various types of igneous rocks.

Felsic Igneous Rocks

Felsic igneous rocks are characterized by their high silica content and light-colored appearance. These rocks are formed from magma that contains a high proportion of feldspar and quartz minerals. Due to their high silica content, felsic igneous rocks have lower melting points and tend to be more viscous. Examples of felsic igneous rocks include granite and rhyolite.

Mafic Igneous Rocks

Mafic igneous rocks, on the other hand, have a lower silica content and appear darker in color. These rocks are formed from magma that is rich in iron and magnesium minerals. Mafic igneous rocks have higher melting points and are less viscous compared to felsic igneous rocks. Examples of mafic igneous rocks include basalt and gabbro.

Formation of Intermediate Igneous Rocks

Intermediate igneous rocks are formed when magma has a composition that is between felsic and mafic. These rocks contain a balanced proportion of feldspar, quartz, and iron-magnesium minerals. Intermediate igneous rocks exhibit properties and characteristics that are intermediate between felsic and mafic rocks. Examples of intermediate igneous rocks include andesite and diorite.

The Role of Volcanoes in Igneous Rock Formation

Volcanoes play a crucial role in the formation of igneous rocks, particularly extrusive igneous rocks. When magma erupts from a volcano, it is exposed to the Earth’s surface and rapidly cools, resulting in the formation of volcanic rocks. Volcanic activity is responsible for the creation of various landforms, such as volcanic cones, lava flows, and volcanic islands, which are composed of igneous rocks.


In summary, when magma cools and solidifies on the Earth’s surface, it leads to the formation of igneous rocks. The type of igneous rock formed depends on factors such as the cooling environment, mineral composition, and volcanic activity. Whether it is the coarse-grained intrusive rocks like granite or the fine-grained extrusive rocks like basalt, igneous rocks provide valuable insights into the geological processes that shape our planet.

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