What do rabbits eat?


Rabbits are herbivorous animals that have a diverse diet consisting mainly of plants. They have a unique digestive system that allows them to efficiently extract nutrients from fibrous plant material. In this article, we will explore the various types of food that rabbits eat, their nutritional requirements, and how to ensure a balanced diet for these adorable creatures.

1. Hay

Hay is the most important component of a rabbit’s diet. It provides essential fiber, which is crucial for maintaining a healthy digestive system. Rabbits should have unlimited access to fresh, high-quality hay. Timothy hay, orchard grass, and brome grass are some popular choices. It is recommended to provide a variety of hays to offer different flavors and textures.

1.1 Benefits of hay

Hay not only aids in digestion but also helps wear down a rabbit’s continuously growing teeth. The constant chewing required to consume hay promotes dental health and prevents dental problems. Additionally, the high fiber content in hay helps prevent obesity, reduces the risk of gastrointestinal issues, and keeps the rabbit mentally stimulated.

2. Fresh vegetables

Fresh vegetables are an essential part of a rabbit’s diet as they provide important vitamins, minerals, and hydration. However, it is crucial to introduce new vegetables gradually to avoid digestive upset. The recommended portion is about one cup of vegetables per two pounds of body weight per day. Some safe vegetables for rabbits include:

  • Romaine lettuce
  • Bok choy
  • Kale
  • Parsley
  • Carrots (in moderation due to sugar content)
  • Broccoli (stems and leaves)

2.1 Introducing new vegetables

When introducing new vegetables to a rabbit’s diet, it is important to do so one at a time. This allows you to monitor the rabbit for any signs of digestive upset or allergies. Gradually increase the amount and variety of vegetables over time to prevent sudden changes in the rabbit’s digestive system.

3. Fresh fruits

Fresh fruits can be fed to rabbits as an occasional treat due to their high sugar content. They should be given in small quantities and only as a supplement to their regular diet. Some safe fruits for rabbits include:

  • Apples (remove seeds and core)
  • Berries (strawberries, raspberries, blueberries)
  • Bananas (in moderation due to sugar content)
  • Pears (remove seeds and core)

3.1 Avoiding excessive sugar intake

Since rabbits have a sensitive digestive system, it is crucial to limit their fruit intake to prevent digestive upset and obesity. The high sugar content in fruits can disrupt the balance of beneficial bacteria in the rabbit’s gut, leading to potential health problems.

4. Pellets

Pellets are commercially produced food specifically formulated for rabbits. These pellets contain a balance of essential nutrients and can be a convenient way to ensure that rabbits receive proper nutrition. However, pellets should not be the main component of a rabbit’s diet and should be fed in moderation.

4.1 Choosing the right pellets

When selecting pellets for your rabbit, opt for high-quality brands that do not contain added sugars or artificial additives. Look for pellets that are high in fiber (at least 18-20%) and low in protein and fat content. Pellets should be fed in limited quantities to prevent rabbits from becoming overly reliant on them.

5. Water

Water is vital for a rabbit’s overall health and well-being. Fresh, clean water should always be available to rabbits. It is advisable to provide water in a heavy, spill-proof bowl or a water bottle with a sipper tube. Regularly check the water supply to ensure it is not contaminated or empty.

5.1 Importance of hydration

Proper hydration is crucial for maintaining healthy digestion, preventing urinary tract problems, and regulating body temperature in rabbits. Lack of water can lead to dehydration, which can have serious consequences for their health. Ensure that the water is changed daily to keep it fresh and clean.

6. Safe treats

Rabbits can enjoy occasional treats as a form of enrichment and to strengthen the bond with their owners. It is important to choose treats that are safe and appropriate for rabbits. Some safe treat options for rabbits include:

  • Small pieces of dried apple or carrot
  • Herb mixes specifically formulated for rabbits
  • Timothy hay-based treats

6.1 Moderation is key

While treats can be a source of enjoyment for rabbits, they should be given sparingly. Overfeeding treats can lead to weight gain, digestive problems, and nutritional imbalances. It is crucial to maintain a balanced diet and limit treat consumption to prevent health issues.


Rabbits have a diverse diet consisting of hay, fresh vegetables, fresh fruits (in moderation), pellets (in moderation), water, and safe treats. Providing a balanced and varied diet is crucial for a rabbit’s overall health and well-being. It is important to introduce new foods gradually, monitor their digestion, and ensure that the diet meets their nutritional requirements. By understanding the dietary needs of rabbits, we can ensure that these adorable creatures thrive and live a happy, healthy life.

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