What Do Beavers Eat?


Beavers are fascinating creatures known for their ability to build complex dams and lodges. But have you ever wondered what these industrious animals eat? In this article, we will explore the dietary habits of beavers in detail, covering various subtopics such as their primary food sources, nutritional requirements, foraging behavior, and the impact of their diet on the ecosystem.

1. Primary Food Sources

Beavers are primarily herbivores, meaning their diet consists mainly of plant material. They have a diverse range of food sources, including:

  • Tree Bark: Beavers are famous for their ability to fell trees, and they rely heavily on tree bark for sustenance. They primarily target softwood trees like aspen, poplar, and willow.
  • Twigs and Leaves: Apart from bark, beavers also consume twigs and leaves from various tree species. They often strip the leaves off branches before consuming them.
  • Aquatic Plants: Beavers are excellent swimmers, and they frequently feed on a variety of aquatic plants such as water lilies, cattails, and pondweeds.
  • Grasses and Sedges: In addition to trees and aquatic plants, beavers also consume grasses and sedges found in their habitat.

2. Nutritional Requirements

Beavers have specific nutritional requirements to support their active lifestyle and the energy-intensive task of building dams and lodges. Their diet needs to provide them with essential nutrients such as:

  • Carbohydrates: The primary source of energy for beavers comes from carbohydrates found in tree bark, twigs, and other plant material.
  • Proteins: Beavers require proteins for growth, repair, and reproduction. They obtain proteins from plant sources like leaves and aquatic vegetation.
  • Fats: Fats are important for insulation and energy storage. Beavers acquire fats from plant materials and other food sources.
  • Minerals and Vitamins: Beavers also require minerals and vitamins for overall health. They obtain these micronutrients from a diverse diet.

3. Foraging Behavior

Beavers are primarily nocturnal animals, and they spend a significant amount of time foraging for food. Their foraging behavior involves:

  • Dam Building: Beavers construct dams to create ponds, which serve as a protective environment for their foraging activities. These dams also aid in controlling water levels.
  • Tree Felling: Beavers use their powerful incisors to fell trees, primarily targeting those with nutritious bark. They drag the felled trees to the water for easier access to the bark.
  • Underwater Foraging: Beavers can hold their breath for up to 15 minutes, allowing them to dive underwater and access submerged food sources like aquatic plants.
  • Food Storage: Beavers often store branches and logs underwater near their lodges or in hidden caches to ensure a food supply during winter months when foraging becomes challenging.

4. Impact on the Ecosystem

The diet of beavers has a significant impact on the surrounding ecosystem. Their feeding habits and dam-building activities can lead to both positive and negative effects:

  • Positive Effects: By creating ponds, beavers help regulate water levels and create valuable wetland habitats. Their feeding on trees also promotes forest regeneration and enhances biodiversity.
  • Negative Effects: Excessive tree felling by beavers can result in the loss of valuable timber resources and alter the composition of forests. Additionally, their dams can sometimes cause flooding and impact agricultural lands.


Q1: Do beavers eat fish?

No, beavers are not carnivorous. They primarily consume plant material and do not include fish in their diet.

Q2: How much do beavers eat in a day?

Beavers can consume approximately 15-20% of their body weight in plant material each day. However, their food intake can vary depending on factors such as the availability of food and the season.

Q3: Can beavers eat meat?

No, beavers are herbivores and do not eat meat. Their digestive system is adapted to process plant material efficiently.

Q4: Do beavers eat crops?

While beavers primarily feed on natural vegetation, they may occasionally consume crops if they are easily accessible near their habitat. Farmers often use protective measures to prevent beaver damage to their crops.

Q5: How do beavers choose which trees to eat?

Beavers often select trees based on their nutritional value. They prefer softwood trees like aspen and poplar, which have a higher carbohydrate content in their bark.

Q6: Are beavers picky eaters?

Beavers are not particularly picky eaters. They have a wide-ranging diet and consume various plant species based on availability and nutritional value.

Q7: Is the diet of beavers the same worldwide?

The diet of beavers can vary slightly depending on the region and the specific plant species available. However, their primary food sources and nutritional requirements remain fairly consistent across their geographic range.


Beavers are herbivores with a diverse diet consisting of tree bark, twigs, leaves, aquatic plants, grasses, and sedges. Their nutritional requirements include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins. Beavers forage primarily at night, building dams, felling trees, and diving underwater. Their diet and foraging behavior play a crucial role in shaping ecosystems, with both positive and negative effects. Understanding the dietary habits of beavers helps us appreciate their ecological significance and the delicate balance they maintain within their habitats.

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