The Number of People in the Upper Room on the Day of Pentecost


The Day of Pentecost is a significant event in Christian history. It commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Jesus Christ after his ascension to heaven. One question that arises is how many people were present in the upper room on that day. In this article, we will explore various perspectives and historical accounts to determine the approximate number of individuals gathered in the upper room during the Day of Pentecost.

The Significance of the Day of Pentecost

The Day of Pentecost, also known as the Feast of Weeks or Shavuot, is a Jewish holiday celebrated fifty days after Passover. For Christians, it holds special importance as it marks the birth of the Church through the outpouring of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples. This event is described in the New Testament book of Acts, chapter 2.

The Upper Room: The Gathering Place

According to the biblical account, Jesus instructed his disciples to wait in Jerusalem until they received the promised Holy Spirit. They gathered in an upper room, which is believed to have been located in Jerusalem. This upper room became the meeting place for the disciples during the period leading up to the Day of Pentecost.

The Original Twelve Disciples

Among those present in the upper room were the original twelve disciples who had been chosen by Jesus during his earthly ministry. These disciples were Peter, James, John, Andrew, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, James (son of Alphaeus), Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot (who was later replaced by Matthias).

Women Who Followed Jesus

In addition to the twelve disciples, there were also women who followed Jesus and were part of his ministry. These women, including Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Susanna, and others, were faithful supporters and witnesses of Jesus’ teachings and miracles. It is likely that some of these women were present in the upper room during the Day of Pentecost.

Family Members and Relatives

It is plausible to assume that family members and relatives of the disciples were present in the upper room as well. The culture of the time emphasized close-knit family units, and it is reasonable to believe that the disciples’ loved ones would have been present during this significant event.

The Day of Pentecost (Shavuot)

Estimates and Historical Accounts

While the exact number of people in the upper room on the Day of Pentecost cannot be determined with absolute certainty, various estimates and historical accounts provide some insights into the possible range.

Acts 1:15 – About 120 Believers

The biblical account in Acts 1:15 mentions that there were about 120 believers gathered together in one place. This number is derived from the specific mention of the disciples, women, and Mary, the mother of Jesus. However, it is important to note that this number represents believers, not necessarily all those present in the upper room.

Josephus’ Account

Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian, mentions a tradition that the upper room was capable of accommodating 120 people. This aligns with the biblical account and further supports the notion that the upper room was not a large venue.

Early Church Tradition

Early church tradition, as recorded by Eusebius of Caesarea, suggests that the upper room was relatively small and could not hold a large crowd. This provides additional evidence for a smaller number of people gathered on the Day of Pentecost.

Speculations and Varied Opinions

Despite the biblical and historical accounts, there have been speculations and varied opinions regarding the exact number of individuals in the upper room. Some theories suggest a smaller number, ranging from 12 to 70, while others propose a larger gathering of several hundred people.


In conclusion, while the precise number of people in the upper room on the Day of Pentecost remains uncertain, the biblical account, historical records, and early church tradition point to a relatively small gathering of believers. The estimate of about 120 individuals is commonly referenced, although it is important to note that this number represents the believers gathered in one place, not necessarily the total number of people present. Regardless of the exact number, the events of the Day of Pentecost hold immense spiritual significance for Christians worldwide.

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