The Main Outcome of the Reconstruction Period



The Reconstruction period, which followed the American Civil War, was a critical time in American history. It aimed to rebuild the Southern states and reintegrate them into the Union, while also addressing the issues of slavery, civil rights, and political power. This article will explore the main results of the Reconstruction period and analyze its impact on the nation.

1. Emancipation Proclamation and the End of Slavery

The Emancipation Proclamation, issued by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863, played a significant role in the Reconstruction period. It declared all slaves in Confederate territory to be free, effectively ending slavery in the United States. This landmark decision had a profound impact on the social fabric of the nation and set the stage for further reforms.

1.1 Effects on African Americans

The Emancipation Proclamation brought newfound freedom to millions of African Americans. However, the reality of their situation was far from ideal. Many continued to face discrimination, violence, and economic hardships. The Reconstruction period aimed to address these issues and secure equal rights for African Americans.

1.2 Impact on Southern Economy

The end of slavery had a direct impact on the Southern economy, which heavily relied on the labor of enslaved individuals. Plantation owners had to adapt to a new labor system and many struggled to maintain their wealth and influence. The Reconstruction period saw efforts to revive the Southern economy and establish a more equitable labor system.

2. Civil Rights Amendments

In order to secure the rights of newly freed African Americans, several constitutional amendments were ratified during the Reconstruction period.

2.1 Thirteenth Amendment

The Thirteenth Amendment, ratified in 1865, abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. This amendment laid the foundation for the eradication of slavery and marked a significant step towards equality.

2.2 Fourteenth Amendment

The Fourteenth Amendment, ratified in 1868, granted equal protection under the law to all citizens, regardless of race or ethnicity. It also ensured that states could not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.

2.3 Fifteenth Amendment

The Fifteenth Amendment, ratified in 1870, guaranteed the right to vote regardless of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. This amendment aimed to address the political disenfranchisement of African Americans and promote their participation in the democratic process.

3. Reconstruction Acts and Federal Intervention

The federal government played a significant role in the Reconstruction period through the implementation of various Reconstruction Acts.

3.1 Military Reconstruction

The Military Reconstruction Act of 1867 divided the South into five military districts and required them to draft new state constitutions that included provisions for African American suffrage. This act aimed to ensure the protection of civil rights and promote political stability in the region.

3.2 Enforcement Acts

The Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 were passed to counteract the rise of white supremacist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, and protect the rights of African Americans. These acts granted federal authority to prosecute those who violated the civil rights of others and suppressed the activities of such organizations.

4. Rise of African American Political Power

The Reconstruction period witnessed a significant increase in African American political participation.

4.1 Elected Officials

During Reconstruction, numerous African Americans were elected to political offices at the local, state, and federal levels. This marked a historic shift in political power and provided African Americans with a platform to advocate for their rights and interests.

4.2 Black Codes and Jim Crow Laws

Despite the progress made, the implementation of discriminatory laws, such as the Black Codes and later the Jim Crow laws, aimed to restrict the rights and freedoms of African Americans. These laws further perpetuated racial segregation and hindered the full realization of African American political power.

5. End of Reconstruction and its Legacy

The Reconstruction period came to an end in 1877, marking a significant shift in the political landscape of the United States.

5.1 Compromise of 1877

The Compromise of 1877 effectively ended Reconstruction and withdrew federal troops from the South. This compromise was reached to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876 and resulted in the abandonment of many Reconstruction policies and protections.

5.2 Legacy of Reconstruction

The legacy of the Reconstruction period is complex and multifaceted. While it succeeded in abolishing slavery and establishing civil rights amendments, many of its goals were not fully realized. The end of Reconstruction marked the beginning of a long period of racial segregation and systemic discrimination which would persist for decades.


The Reconstruction period was a critical chapter in American history. It aimed to rebuild the nation, address the issues of slavery and civil rights, and promote equality. While it achieved some significant milestones, such as the end of slavery and the ratification of civil rights amendments, the ultimate outcome of Reconstruction fell short of its goals. Nevertheless, it laid the foundation for future movements and played a crucial role in shaping the modern United States.

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