The Largest Island in the World



Islands are fascinating geographical features that have always captured our imagination. From tropical paradises to remote and mysterious lands, islands offer a unique sense of adventure and discovery. In this article, we will explore the question of which is the largest island in the world. We will delve into various aspects of this topic, including the measurements, geographical characteristics, and interesting facts about this mammoth island.

Defining the Size of an Island

Before we delve into the specifics of the largest island, it is important to establish the criteria used to determine its size. When measuring the size of an island, geographers typically consider its land area, which includes both its total area and its landmass above water. This helps to differentiate islands from other landforms like peninsulas or archipelagos.

Total Area vs. Land Area

When discussing the size of an island, it is essential to distinguish between its total area and its land area. The total area refers to the entire surface area of the island, including both land and water. On the other hand, the land area only takes into account the solid ground above water. For the purpose of determining the largest island, we will primarily focus on the land area.

Greenland – The Largest Island in the World

The World’s 10 Largest Islands

Greenland: The Largest Island on Earth

Now that we have established the criteria for measuring the size of an island, we can confidently declare that Greenland is the largest island in the world. Located in the North Atlantic Ocean, Greenland is part of the Kingdom of Denmark and has a land area of approximately 2,166,086 square kilometers (836,330 square miles).

Geographical Location

Greenland is situated between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, with the Davis Strait separating it from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago to the west. It is geographically closer to North America, specifically Canada, than it is to Europe, despite being politically aligned with the latter. The island is mostly covered by ice, with the Greenland Ice Sheet accounting for approximately 80% of its land area.

Landforms and Topography

Greenland is characterized by its rugged and mountainous terrain, with numerous fjords and deep valleys cutting through the landscape. The highest point on the island is Gunnbjørn Fjeld, standing at an impressive 3,694 meters (12,119 feet) above sea level. The coastline of Greenland is also notable for its sheer size, stretching over 44,000 kilometers (27,340 miles) due to its complex system of fjords and inlets.


Due to its northern latitude and proximity to the Arctic, Greenland experiences an Arctic climate, characterized by long, extremely cold winters and short, cool summers. The interior of the island remains permanently covered in ice, while the coastal regions have a milder climate influenced by the ocean currents. Average temperatures range from -8°C (18°F) in winter to 10°C (50°F) in summer.

Interesting Facts about Greenland

1. Autonomous Territory

Although Greenland is part of the Kingdom of Denmark, it has been granted self-government since 2009. This means that Greenlandic people have control over their own domestic affairs while Denmark handles defense and foreign affairs.

2. Inuit Culture

The majority of Greenland’s population is of Inuit descent, and the Inuit culture plays a significant role in the island’s identity. Traditional practices such as hunting, fishing, and dog sledding are still prevalent in many communities.

3. Midnight Sun and Polar Night

Due to its high latitude, Greenland experiences both the midnight sun and polar night phenomena. During the summer solstice, parts of the island are bathed in 24 hours of daylight, while in winter, the sun does not rise above the horizon for several months.

4. Biodiversity

Despite its harsh climate, Greenland is home to a surprising variety of wildlife. Polar bears, Arctic foxes, reindeer, whales, and seals are some of the iconic species found in the region. The island also serves as a crucial breeding ground for numerous migratory bird species.

5. Moving Icebergs

One of the most awe-inspiring sights in Greenland is the presence of floating icebergs. These massive chunks of ice can drift along the coast, creating a dynamic and ever-changing landscape. Icebergs are often formed when chunks of ice break off from glaciers and float in the surrounding waters.

6. Northern Lights

Greenland is considered one of the prime locations to witness the mesmerizing natural phenomenon known as the Aurora Borealis or the Northern Lights. The island’s remote and unpolluted environment offers ideal conditions for observing this colorful display of lights in the sky.


1. Is Greenland a country?

No, Greenland is not an independent country. It is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark.

2. How did Greenland get its name?

Greenland was named by the Norwegian explorer Erik the Red, who wanted to attract settlers to the island. He chose the name “Greenland” to make it sound more appealing and fertile, even though the island is predominantly covered in ice.

3. Are there any cities in Greenland?

Yes, Greenland has several settlements and towns, the largest of which is Nuuk, the capital city. Other notable towns include Ilulissat, Sisimiut, and Qaqortoq.

4. Can you visit Greenland as a tourist?

Yes, Greenland is open to tourism, and visitors can explore its unique landscapes, engage in outdoor activities, and experience the local culture. It is important to note that traveling to Greenland requires careful planning, as it is a remote and challenging destination.

5. How is life in Greenland?

Life in Greenland is deeply influenced by its harsh climate and remote location. The Inuit population embraces a subsistence lifestyle, relying on hunting and fishing for sustenance. Modern amenities and services are available in larger towns, but the overall pace of life is generally slower compared to more populous regions.

6. What is the future of Greenland?

The future of Greenland is a topic of ongoing debate and discussion. The island faces challenges related to climate change, economic development, and political autonomy. As the ice continues to melt, opportunities for resource extraction and increased trade routes may arise, bringing both opportunities and potential risks.


Greenland stands as the largest island in the world, boasting a vast land area and captivating natural beauty. From its icy landscapes to its unique wildlife, Greenland offers a glimpse into the wonders of our planet. Its rich cultural heritage and challenging environment make it a destination that both fascinates and inspires. Whether you dream of exploring the majestic icebergs or witnessing the mystical Northern Lights, Greenland is a place that promises unforgettable experiences.

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