How to Hatch Chicken Eggs from a Homemade Incubator


Hatching chicken eggs can be an exciting and fulfilling experience, especially when done in a homemade incubator. By providing the right conditions, you can successfully hatch chicken eggs and witness the miracle of life. In this comprehensive guide, we will walk you through the entire process step by step, covering all the necessary subtopics to ensure a successful hatch.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Building Your Homemade Incubator
  3. Preparing the Incubator
  4. Choosing Fertile Chicken Eggs
  5. Setting Up the Incubator
  6. Monitoring Temperature and Humidity
  7. Turning the Eggs
  8. Candling the Eggs
  9. Preparing for Hatching
  10. Assisting with Hatching
  11. FAQs
  12. Conclusion

1. Introduction

Before we dive into the details, let’s briefly discuss the importance and benefits of hatching chicken eggs at home. Hatching eggs in a homemade incubator allows you to have control over the entire process, from selecting the eggs to caring for the chicks. It is a rewarding experience that can deepen your connection with nature and provide you with a source of homegrown, healthy chickens.

2. Building Your Homemade Incubator

The first step in hatching chicken eggs is to build a homemade incubator. You can use various materials, such as an insulated box, a Styrofoam cooler, or even a small refrigerator. We recommend using a Styrofoam cooler due to its excellent insulation properties. Here’s a step-by-step guide to building your own homemade incubator:

Materials needed:

  • Styrofoam cooler
  • Thermometer
  • Heating element (e.g., a light bulb or heating pad)
  • Fan
  • Water container
  • Wire mesh or egg tray

Step 1: Prepare the cooler:

Make a hole in the lid of the cooler to fit the heating element. Cut a small opening for the fan, ensuring proper ventilation. Create another hole for the thermometer to pass through.

Step 2: Install the heating element and fan:

Place the heating element inside the cooler, positioning it near the hole in the lid. Attach the fan to another side of the cooler to circulate the air evenly.

Step 3: Add water container:

Place a container of water inside the incubator to maintain humidity levels. This will help prevent the eggs from drying out during the incubation process.

Step 4: Arrange wire mesh or egg tray:

Place a wire mesh or egg tray on top of the water container, creating a platform for the eggs. This will allow proper airflow around the eggs.

3. Preparing the Incubator

Once your homemade incubator is ready, it’s crucial to prepare it properly before adding the eggs. Here are the necessary steps to prepare the incubator:

Step 1: Clean and sanitize:

Thoroughly clean the incubator, including all the surfaces and accessories. Use a mild disinfectant solution to sanitize the incubator and ensure a bacteria-free environment for the eggs.

Step 2: Set up temperature and humidity controls:

Before adding the eggs, it’s important to set up and stabilize the temperature and humidity controls in the incubator. This will create the ideal conditions for successful egg incubation.

Step 3: Calibrate the thermometer:

Check the accuracy of the thermometer by comparing it with a reliable thermometer. Adjust the temperature settings accordingly to ensure accurate readings.

Step 4: Test the incubator:

Run the incubator for a few days without eggs to ensure it maintains a stable temperature and humidity. This will help you identify and fix any issues before adding the eggs.

4. Choosing Fertile Chicken Eggs

Choosing the right eggs is crucial for a successful hatch. Here are some factors to consider when selecting fertile chicken eggs:

Egg quality:

Choose eggs that have clean, intact shells without any cracks or deformities. Avoid eggs with irregular shapes or thin shells, as they may not develop properly.


Obtain eggs from healthy, disease-free chickens. If possible, select eggs from established breeders or reputable sources to ensure genetic diversity and good quality eggs.


Preferably, choose eggs that are less than a week old. Fresh eggs have a higher hatchability rate compared to older ones.

Storage conditions:

Ensure that the eggs have been stored properly at a temperature of around 55-60°F (13-15°C) and a humidity level of 70-75%. Avoid eggs that have been refrigerated or exposed to extreme temperatures.

5. Setting Up the Incubator

Now that you have your incubator ready and the eggs selected, it’s time to set up the incubator for the eggs. Here’s what you need to do:

Step 1: Warm up the incubator:

Allow the incubator to stabilize at the desired temperature and humidity for at least 24 hours before adding the eggs. This ensures that the eggs will be exposed to consistent conditions throughout the incubation process.

Step 2: Mark the eggs:

Using a pencil, mark one side of each egg with an “X” and the other side with an “O.” This will help you keep track of the eggs during the turning process, ensuring that all sides receive equal incubation.

Step 3: Position the eggs:

Place the marked eggs on the wire mesh or egg tray inside the incubator, ensuring that they are positioned with the marked side facing up. This will allow you to easily observe and monitor the eggs during the incubation period.

6. Monitoring Temperature and Humidity

Maintaining the correct temperature and humidity levels is crucial for the successful development of the chicken embryos. Here’s how you can monitor and regulate these factors:


Keep the temperature in the incubator between 99-101°F (37-38°C) throughout the incubation period. Use the thermometer to monitor the temperature regularly and make adjustments as needed. A slight deviation from the ideal temperature range can affect the hatch rate.


Maintain a consistent humidity level of around 50-55% during the first 18 days of incubation. Increase the humidity to 65-75% during the final days to facilitate hatching. Use a hygrometer to monitor the humidity levels and add water to the container inside the incubator as needed.

7. Turning the Eggs

Turning the eggs is a crucial step in the incubation process as it prevents the embryo from sticking to the shell and promotes proper development. Here’s how to turn the eggs:

Step 1: Frequency:

Turn the eggs at least three times a day. Aim for an odd number of turns to ensure that the eggs spend an equal amount of time on each side.

Step 2: Technique:

Gently rotate each egg by 180 degrees, ensuring that you turn them in the same direction each time. You can mark the eggs with additional markings to keep track of the turns.

Step 3: Consistency:

Maintain a consistent turning schedule until day 18 of incubation. Stop turning the eggs on day 18 to allow the embryos to position themselves for hatching.

8. Candling the Eggs

Candling is a method used to assess the development and viability of the embryos inside the eggs. Here’s how you can candle the eggs:

Step 1: Dark room:

Perform candling in a dark room to allow better visibility of the internal contents of the egg.

Step 2: Light source:

Hold a bright flashlight or a candling lamp against the egg, illuminating the contents from one side. This will enable you to observe the embryo, blood vessels, and determine the viability of the egg.

Step 3: Observations:

Look for signs of embryo development, such as veins, a dark mass, or movement inside the egg. Remove any eggs that show no signs of development or contain dead embryos to prevent contamination.

9. Preparing for Hatching

As the incubation period nears its end, it’s essential to prepare for the hatching process. Here are the necessary steps:

Step 1: Increase humidity:

Gradually increase the humidity to 65-75% during the last three days of incubation. This helps soften the eggshell and facilitates the hatching process.

Step 2: Stop turning:

On day 18, stop turning the eggs to allow the embryos to position themselves for hatching. Maintain stable temperature and humidity levels during this time.

Step 3: Prepare the brooder:

Set up a brooder box or a warm, clean space for the chicks to move into after hatching. Ensure that the brooder is equipped with a heat source, bedding, food, and water.

10. Assisting with Hatching

While most chicks will hatch naturally without any assistance, some may require help. Here’s how you can assist with hatching:

Step 1: Observe for pipping:

Watch for signs of pipping, which is when the chick starts to make a small hole in the eggshell. This indicates that hatching is in progress.

Step 2: Assess the situation:

If a chick is struggling to hatch for an extended period or shows signs of distress, you may consider assisting. However, it’s crucial to intervene only when necessary, as interfering too early may cause harm.

Step 3: Assisting safely:

If intervention is required, carefully chip away a small portion of the eggshell to create an opening. Be cautious not to damage the delicate blood vessels or the chick inside. Allow the chick to continue hatching naturally once the initial opening is made.


1. Can I use a different type of container for the homemade incubator?

Yes, you can use alternative containers such as an insulated box or a small refrigerator. However, a Styrofoam cooler is recommended for its excellent insulation properties and ease of modification.

2. How long does the incubation process take?

The incubation period for chicken eggs is typically around 21 days. However, slight variations in temperature and humidity can affect the duration.

3. Do I need a separate incubator for different breeds of chicken eggs?

No, you can incubate different breeds of chicken eggs together in the same incubator. Ensure that the eggs are compatible in terms of size and incubation requirements.

4. Can I open the incubator during the incubation process?

It is best to avoid opening the incubator unnecessarily during the incubation process. Opening the incubator can cause temperature and humidity fluctuations, which may negatively impact the developing embryos.

5. Is it necessary to assist with hatching?

Most chicks will hatch without any assistance. However, if a chick is struggling for an extended period or appears distressed, it may need assistance. Only intervene when necessary and be careful not to damage the chick or disrupt the hatching process.

6. What should I do with unhatched eggs?

After allowing sufficient time for hatching, if an egg remains unhatched, it is likely that the embryo did not develop or died. You can dispose of the unhatched eggs and clean the incubator for future use.


Hatching chicken eggs from a homemade incubator is a fascinating and fulfilling journey. By following the steps outlined in this guide, you can create the ideal conditions for successful egg incubation and witness the miracle of life unfolding before your eyes. Remember to be patient, monitor the temperature and humidity carefully, and provide necessary assistance when needed. Enjoy the process and embrace the joy of raising your own flock of chickens!

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