How many electrons does cadmium have?

Science

Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. It is a soft, bluish-white metal that is commonly used in various industrial applications. To understand the number of electrons in cadmium, we need to delve into its atomic structure and electron configuration. Let’s explore this topic in detail.

Atomic structure of cadmium

Cadmium belongs to the d-block and is classified as a transition metal. It has 48 protons in its nucleus, which determine its atomic number. In a neutral atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons, so cadmium also has 48 electrons.

Electron configuration of cadmium

The electron configuration of an element represents the distribution of electrons in its atomic orbitals. For cadmium, the electron configuration can be determined by following the Aufbau principle and filling the orbitals in order of increasing energy.

The electron configuration of cadmium is: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 5p6.

This electron configuration can be broken down into several subshells:

1s2

The 1s subshell contains two electrons, which are in the lowest energy level. These electrons are closest to the nucleus.

2s2 2p6

The 2s and 2p subshells together contain eight electrons. The 2s subshell can hold a maximum of two electrons, while the 2p subshell can hold six electrons.

3s2 3p6

The 3s and 3p subshells together also contain eight electrons. Similar to the previous subshells, the 3s subshell can hold a maximum of two electrons, and the 3p subshell can hold six electrons.

4s2 3d10 4p6

The 4s, 3d, and 4p subshells have a total of 18 electrons. The 4s subshell can hold a maximum of two electrons, the 3d subshell can hold ten electrons, and the 4p subshell can hold six electrons.

5s2 4d10 5p6

The 5s, 4d, and 5p subshells contain 18 electrons. The 5s subshell can hold two electrons, the 4d subshell can hold ten electrons, and the 5p subshell can hold six electrons.

4f14 5d10 6s2 5p6

The final subshells in the electron configuration of cadmium are 4f, 5d, 6s, and 5p. These subshells accommodate a total of 32 electrons. The 4f subshell can hold a maximum of 14 electrons, the 5d subshell can hold ten electrons, the 6s subshell can hold two electrons, and the 5p subshell can hold six electrons.

Summary

In conclusion, cadmium, with its atomic number 48, has a total of 48 electrons. The electron configuration of cadmium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 5p6. This distribution of electrons follows the Aufbau principle and fills the atomic orbitals in order of increasing energy.

Rate article
voxifyz.com
Add a comment