How Does the Peltier Effect Work?



The Peltier effect, named after French physicist Jean Charles Athanase Peltier, is a phenomenon that occurs at the junction of two dissimilar conductive materials when an electric current passes through them. This effect leads to either the absorption or release of heat at the junction, depending on the direction of the current flow. The Peltier effect is widely used in various applications, such as thermoelectric cooling and heating devices. In this article, we will explore the mechanisms and principles behind the Peltier effect.

Understanding Thermoelectricity

Before diving into the details of the Peltier effect, it is important to understand the concept of thermoelectricity. Thermoelectricity refers to the conversion of temperature differences into electric voltage and vice versa. This phenomenon is based on the Seebeck effect, discovered by Thomas Johann Seebeck in 1821, which states that when two dissimilar metals are joined to form a closed circuit and there is a temperature difference between the junctions, an electric voltage is generated.

The Seebeck Effect

The Seebeck effect occurs due to the difference in electron transport properties between the two metals. Electrons tend to diffuse from the metal with higher electron density to the one with lower electron density, creating a flow of charge carriers. This generates an electric potential difference, known as the Seebeck voltage, across the junctions.

The Seebeck coefficient, denoted by α, quantifies the magnitude of the Seebeck effect. It represents the voltage generated per unit temperature difference between the junctions. The Seebeck coefficient varies with the type of metals used in the thermocouple and can be positive or negative.

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The Peltier Effect

The Peltier effect is essentially the reverse of the Seebeck effect. Instead of generating an electric voltage due to a temperature difference, it describes the absorption or release of heat at the junction when an electric current flows through it. The Peltier coefficient, denoted by π, characterizes the heat transfer per unit current passing through the junction.

The Peltier Junction

The Peltier effect is observed at the Peltier junction, which is the interface between two dissimilar conductive materials. These materials are typically semiconductors, such as bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3), that have different electron transport properties. The Peltier junction consists of a p-type semiconductor and an n-type semiconductor, where p refers to positively charged carriers and n refers to negatively charged carriers.

Thermoelectric Cooling

One of the primary applications of the Peltier effect is thermoelectric cooling. When an electric current is passed through a Peltier junction, heat is either absorbed or released at the junction, depending on the direction of the current flow. This phenomenon allows for the creation of thermoelectric coolers, which can cool objects by transferring heat away from them.

Thermoelectric Cooler Components

A typical thermoelectric cooler consists of multiple Peltier junctions connected in series and sandwiched between two ceramic plates. The Peltier junctions are electrically connected to a power source, and the ceramic plates provide thermal insulation. One side of the cooler, known as the cold side, is in contact with the object to be cooled, while the other side, known as the hot side, dissipates the heat absorbed from the cold side to the surrounding environment.

The direction of the current flow through the Peltier junctions determines which side of the thermoelectric cooler becomes cold and which becomes hot. When the current flows from the p-type semiconductor to the n-type semiconductor, heat is absorbed from the cold side, and the hot side dissipates the absorbed heat. Conversely, when the current flows in the opposite direction, heat is released at the cold side, and the hot side absorbs heat from the surroundings.

Thermoelectric Heating

On the other hand, the Peltier effect can also be utilized for thermoelectric heating. By reversing the direction of the current flow through the Peltier junction, heat is released at the junction and transferred to the object or environment to be heated. This application finds use in various heating systems, such as portable heating devices and temperature-controlled chambers.

Efficiency and Limitations

The efficiency of a thermoelectric device, such as a thermoelectric cooler or heater, is determined by the coefficient of performance (COP), which measures the ratio of heat transferred to the electrical power input. The COP of a thermoelectric device depends on several factors, including the materials used, the temperature difference across the junctions, and the electrical resistance of the device.

Material Selection

The choice of materials for the Peltier junctions greatly affects the performance of thermoelectric devices. Semiconductors with high thermoelectric efficiency, low electrical resistivity, and good thermal conductivity are preferred. Researchers are continuously exploring new materials and techniques to enhance the efficiency of thermoelectric devices.

Temperature Difference

The temperature difference across the Peltier junctions plays a crucial role in determining the cooling or heating capacity of thermoelectric devices. A larger temperature difference leads to a higher heat transfer rate, but it also increases the power consumption. Optimizing the temperature difference is essential to maximize the efficiency of the device.

Electrical Resistance

The electrical resistance of the Peltier junctions and the overall electrical circuit affects the power consumption and heat transfer efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Lower electrical resistance results in lower power consumption and improved device performance.


Despite their advantages, thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have certain limitations. One major limitation is their relatively low efficiency compared to traditional cooling and heating technologies. Additionally, thermoelectric devices are typically more expensive and have lower cooling or heating capacities than conventional systems.

Applications of the Peltier Effect

Despite the limitations, the Peltier effect finds numerous applications in various industries. Some common applications include:

  • Thermoelectric coolers for electronic devices and equipment
  • Portable refrigeration systems
  • Temperature-controlled storage containers
  • Climate-controlled seats in vehicles
  • Wine coolers and beverage chillers
  • Thermal cycling devices for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in molecular biology


The Peltier effect is a fascinating phenomenon that enables the absorption or release of heat at the junction of dissimilar conductive materials when an electric current passes through them. This effect forms the basis of thermoelectric cooling and heating devices, offering unique advantages and applications. While thermoelectric devices have their limitations, ongoing research and advancements in materials and design continue to improve their efficiency and expand their potential applications in various industries.

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