Examples of Matter


Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. It is the substance that forms the physical world and everything within it. Matter can exist in different states, such as solid, liquid, or gas. In this article, we will explore various examples of matter and delve into the properties and characteristics of each state.

1. Solid Matter

Solid matter is characterized by its definite shape and volume. The particles in a solid are closely packed together, creating a strong bond between them. Some examples of solid matter include:

  • Metals: Gold, silver, iron, copper, etc.
  • Minerals: Quartz, diamond, granite, etc.
  • Rocks: Basalt, limestone, sandstone, etc.
  • Wood: Oak, pine, mahogany, etc.

These are just a few examples of solid matter, and there are countless more substances that exist in this state. Solids have a fixed shape and volume because their particles are tightly packed and have minimal freedom of movement.

2. Liquid Matter

Liquid matter has a definite volume but takes the shape of its container. The particles in a liquid are not as tightly packed as in a solid, allowing them to flow and move more freely. Here are some examples of liquid matter:

  • Water: H2O, the most common liquid on Earth.
  • Milk: Liquid produced by mammals for feeding their young.
  • Oil: Various types, such as olive oil, coconut oil, etc.
  • Alcohol: Ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.

Liquids have a definite volume because their particles are still closely packed, but they can flow and take the shape of their container due to their ability to move more freely than particles in a solid.


What is Matter? | Examples of Matter | States of Matter | Science

3. Gaseous Matter

Gaseous matter has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. The particles in a gas are highly energetic and move independently of each other. Examples of gaseous matter include:

  • Oxygen: Essential gas for respiration.
  • Nitrogen: The most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Carbon Dioxide: Produced by the respiration of animals and combustion of fossil fuels.
  • Hydrogen: The lightest and most abundant element in the universe.

Gases can expand or contract to fill any available space, as their particles have high kinetic energy and move freely. They have neither a definite shape nor volume.

4. Plasma Matter

Plasma is an ionized gaseous state of matter that consists of highly charged particles. It is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. Examples of plasma matter include:

  • Stars: The Sun and other celestial bodies primarily consist of plasma.
  • Fluorescent lights: The gas inside these lights turns into plasma when an electric current is passed through it.
  • Lightning: The electrical discharge in the atmosphere creates plasma.
  • Neon signs: The glowing lights in these signs are created by plasma.

Plasma matter is highly conductive and reacts strongly to electric and magnetic fields. It is the most abundant state of matter in the universe, although it is not commonly found on Earth.

5. Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)

Bose-Einstein Condensate is a unique state of matter that occurs at extremely low temperatures close to absolute zero. It was first predicted by Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein in the 1920s. Examples of BEC include:

  • Helium: At very low temperatures, helium can form a BEC state.
  • Alkali metals: Certain alkali metals, such as rubidium and sodium, can also form BECs.

In a BEC, atoms lose their individual identities and behave as a single entity. They become indistinguishable from one another and exhibit quantum mechanical properties on a macroscopic scale.

6. Exotic States of Matter

Aside from the four main states of matter, there are several exotic states that have been observed or theorized. These states include:

  • Supersolid: A state that combines the properties of a solid and a superfluid.
  • Quark-gluon plasma: A state where quarks and gluons are not confined within hadrons.
  • Time crystal: A state that exhibits periodic motion even at equilibrium.
  • Strange matter: A hypothetical form of matter composed of strange quarks.

These exotic states of matter are still being studied and explored by scientists, and their properties and applications are yet to be fully understood.


Matter exists in various states, each with its unique properties and characteristics. Solid matter has a definite shape and volume, while liquid matter takes the shape of its container but has a definite volume. Gaseous matter has neither a definite shape nor volume, and plasma matter is an ionized state of gas. Additionally, Bose-Einstein Condensate and exotic states of matter provide further insights into the behavior of particles under extreme conditions. Understanding these examples of matter allows us to comprehend the diverse nature of the physical world we live in.

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