Everyday Life in Colonial New Hampshire


The colonial period in New Hampshire, which lasted from 1623 to 1776, witnessed the establishment and growth of the first English settlements in the region. This article delves into the details of everyday life in colonial New Hampshire, exploring various aspects such as social structure, economy, religion, education, food, clothing, and leisure activities.

Social Structure

The social structure in colonial New Hampshire was primarily based on a hierarchical system, with distinct classes occupying different positions in society.

1. Upper Class

The upper class consisted of wealthy landowners, merchants, and government officials. They lived in elegant houses, owned large tracts of land, and had a significant influence on the political and economic affairs of the colony.

1.1 Lifestyle

The upper class enjoyed a luxurious lifestyle, indulging in fine dining, elaborate parties, and fashionable clothing. They had access to the best education and often sent their children to Europe for further studies.

1.2 Roles and Responsibilities

Members of the upper class held important positions in the government and were responsible for making key decisions regarding the colony’s governance and trade policies.

2. Middle Class

The middle class in colonial New Hampshire comprised small farmers, craftsmen, and shopkeepers. They had a more comfortable lifestyle compared to the lower class but did not possess the wealth and influence of the upper class.

2.1 Occupation

Members of the middle class engaged in various occupations such as farming, blacksmithing, carpentry, and small-scale trading. They usually owned their own land or businesses.

2.2 Education

Education was valued among the middle class, and many parents ensured their children received basic literacy and numeracy skills. However, formal education was limited, and most learning was done through apprenticeships.

3. Lower Class

The lower class consisted of indentured servants, laborers, and slaves. They had the least amount of wealth and power in colonial society.

3.1 Slavery

Slavery was prevalent in colonial New Hampshire, with enslaved individuals primarily used for domestic work or agricultural labor. Slavery, although not as widespread as in the Southern colonies, was still a significant part of the economy.

3.2 Living Conditions

The lower class lived in modest houses or rented rooms and often faced challenging living conditions. They worked long hours for meager wages and had limited access to education and healthcare.


The economy of colonial New Hampshire was primarily agrarian, with agriculture serving as the backbone of the colony’s economy.

1. Agriculture

Agriculture played a vital role in the daily life of colonial New Hampshire. The main crops grown were corn, wheat, rye, and potatoes. Livestock farming, especially cattle and sheep, was also prevalent.

1.1 Farming Techniques

Farmers in colonial New Hampshire used traditional European farming techniques, such as open-field farming and crop rotation. The land was divided into small family farms, and each farm produced a variety of crops.

1.2 Subsistence Farming

Most farmers practiced subsistence farming, meaning they grew crops primarily for their own consumption rather than for commercial purposes. Surplus crops and livestock were traded in local markets.

2. Trade and Commerce

New Hampshire’s coastal location provided opportunities for trade and commerce. The colony exported timber, fish, furs, and agricultural products to other colonies and Europe.

2.1 Shipbuilding

Shipbuilding emerged as a significant industry in colonial New Hampshire due to its access to abundant timber resources. Many ships were constructed and exported to support the growing maritime trade.

2.2 Mercantile System

New Hampshire had a mercantile system in which the colony served as a supplier of raw materials to England and other colonies, while imported goods were heavily taxed.

Religion and Education

1. Religion

Religion played a central role in the lives of colonial New Hampshirites, and the dominant religious denomination was Puritanism.

1.1 Puritan Influence

Puritan beliefs shaped the moral and social values of the colony. The Puritans emphasized hard work, discipline, and the strict adherence to religious principles.

1.2 Religious Freedom

Unlike some other colonies, New Hampshire offered religious freedom to its settlers, attracting individuals from various religious backgrounds. However, Puritanism remained the dominant faith.

2. Education

Education in colonial New Hampshire was primarily driven by religious motives and focused on providing literacy for religious texts.

2.1 Dame Schools

Elementary education was mostly provided by “Dame Schools,” small private schools run by women who taught basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills.

2.2 Latin Grammar Schools

Latin Grammar Schools were established to prepare boys for higher education and provide them with a broader range of subjects, including Latin, Greek, mathematics, and theology.

Food and Clothing

1. Food

The diet of colonial New Hampshirites consisted of locally produced food items, including vegetables, meat, fish, and dairy products.

1.1 Staple Foods

The staple foods in colonial New Hampshire were cornmeal, beans, salted fish, and salted meat. These items formed the basis of many traditional dishes.

1.2 Seasonal Variations

Food availability varied by season. In the warmer months, fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish were abundant, while during winter, preserved foods and dried fruits were more common.

2. Clothing

The clothing worn in colonial New Hampshire was influenced by both English and Native American styles.

2.1 Fabrics and Styles

Colonial New Hampshirites primarily wore clothing made from locally produced fabrics such as wool, linen, and cotton. Men typically wore breeches, shirts, waistcoats, and coats, while women wore dresses, aprons, and bonnets.

2.2 Class Distinctions

The upper class showcased their wealth through elaborate and fashionable clothing, while the lower class wore simpler, functional attire.

Leisure Activities

Colonial New Hampshirites engaged in various leisure activities to unwind and socialize during their free time.

1. Sports and Games

Popular sports and games included wrestling, horse racing, cricket, quoits, skating, and various ball games. These activities provided entertainment and fostered community spirit.

2. Music and Dance

Music and dance were an integral part of colonial social gatherings. Fiddles, flutes, and drums were commonly used instruments, and traditional English and Scottish dances were enjoyed by all.

3. Festivals and Celebrations

Colonial New Hampshirites celebrated various festivals and holidays, including Thanksgiving, Christmas, and Independence Day. These occasions brought communities together for feasting, music, and dancing.


Everyday life in colonial New Hampshire encompassed a wide range of experiences and activities. The social structure, economy, religion, education, food, clothing, and leisure activities all played significant roles in shaping the lives of the colonists. By understanding these aspects, we gain a deeper appreciation for the challenges and accomplishments of the early settlers in creating a new society in the New World.

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