Do Sharks Lay Eggs or Give Birth to Live Young?


Sharks are fascinating creatures that have intrigued humans for centuries. One of the most common questions people have about sharks is whether they lay eggs or give birth to live young. In this article, we will explore this topic in detail, discussing the reproductive strategies of different shark species and the factors that influence their reproductive behavior.

The Two Modes of Shark Reproduction

Sharks exhibit two main modes of reproduction: oviparity and viviparity. Oviparous sharks lay eggs, while viviparous sharks give birth to live young. Let’s dive deeper into each of these strategies:

Oviparity: Sharks that Lay Eggs

Oviparous sharks, also known as egg-laying sharks, produce eggs that develop outside the mother’s body. The process begins with internal fertilization, where a male shark inserts his claspers into the female’s cloaca to deliver sperm. The female then lays the fertilized eggs, which are enclosed in protective cases known as egg capsules.

These egg capsules have a tough, leathery texture to protect the developing embryo from predators and the surrounding environment. The female shark typically attaches these capsules to underwater structures such as rocks, coral reefs, or seaweed, ensuring the eggs have a safe place to develop.

As the embryo grows, it obtains nutrients from the yolk sac contained within the egg capsule. This yolk sac provides all the necessary nourishment for the embryo until it hatches. The hatching time varies among different shark species, ranging from a few months to over a year.

Notable examples of oviparous shark species include the Port Jackson shark, catsharks, and some species of carpet sharks.

Viviparity: Sharks that Give Birth to Live Young

Viviparous sharks, also known as live-bearing sharks, give birth to fully formed pups. Unlike oviparous sharks, the embryo develops inside the mother’s body, receiving nourishment directly from the mother through a placental connection. This mode of reproduction is similar to how mammals give birth.

Within the mother’s body, the embryos are protected and receive a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen. The gestation period varies greatly among different shark species, ranging from a few months to multiple years, depending on factors such as the species, environmental conditions, and the mother’s reproductive cycle.

When it is time for birth, the mother shark undergoes a process called parturition, where she gives birth to live young. The pups are fully capable of swimming and hunting on their own soon after birth, and they must fend for themselves from the moment they are born.

Notable examples of viviparous shark species include great white sharks, tiger sharks, and bull sharks.

Factors Influencing Reproductive Strategies

Various factors influence whether a shark species adopts oviparity or viviparity as its reproductive strategy. Let’s explore some of the key factors:

Environmental Conditions

The environmental conditions in which sharks live play a significant role in determining their reproductive strategy. Oviparity is more common in species that inhabit shallower coastal waters, where the risk of predation on eggs is lower. Viviparity, on the other hand, is prevalent in species that live in deeper offshore waters, where the survival rate of vulnerable eggs would be significantly reduced.

Size and Growth Rate

The size and growth rate of shark species also influence their reproductive strategy. Oviparity is more common in smaller shark species, as the energy required to produce and nourish live young would be relatively high compared to the energy required for egg production. Larger shark species have the advantage of being able to produce fewer, but more developed, offspring through viviparity.

Predation Pressure

The presence of predators in a shark’s habitat can influence its choice of reproductive strategy. Oviparity allows sharks to lay a larger number of eggs, increasing the chances of at least some offspring surviving. Viviparity, on the other hand, reduces the number of offspring produced but ensures a higher survival rate, as the pups are more developed at birth and have a better chance of escaping predators.

Reproductive Cycle

The reproductive cycle of female sharks also plays a role in determining their reproductive strategy. Some shark species have a shorter reproductive cycle, allowing them to produce multiple litters of live young in a single breeding season. Others have longer reproductive cycles and produce fewer, but more developed, offspring.

Shark Reproduction | SHARK ACADEMY

Do sharks lay eggs or give live birth

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. Which shark species lay the largest number of eggs?

Oviparous shark species such as the swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum) and the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) are known to lay large numbers of eggs. The swellshark can lay up to 50 eggs in a single reproductive cycle.

2. How many pups can a viviparous shark give birth to at once?

The number of pups a viviparous shark gives birth to can vary greatly. Some species, like the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), usually give birth to around 2 to 10 pups. However, other species, such as the blue shark (Prionace glauca), can give birth to as many as 100 pups at once.

3. Do all shark species reproduce in the same way?

No, not all shark species reproduce in the same way. While some species are oviparous and lay eggs, others are viviparous and give birth to live young. Additionally, some shark species are even capable of both oviparity and viviparity, depending on various factors.

4. How long is the gestation period for viviparous sharks?

The gestation period for viviparous sharks can vary greatly depending on the species. It can range from a few months to several years. For example, the gestation period for a great white shark is approximately 11 to 18 months, while the spiny dogfish shark has a gestation period of around 18 to 24 months.

5. Are all shark eggs protected by egg capsules?

No, not all shark eggs are protected by egg capsules. Some shark species, such as the houndshark (Triakis semifasciata), do not produce egg capsules. Instead, they release their eggs directly into the water, where they are left to develop and hatch without any protective covering.

6. Do shark embryos receive any parental care?

No, shark embryos do not receive any parental care. Once the eggs are laid or the embryos develop inside the mother’s body, they are left to develop and hatch on their own. Sharks are not known for exhibiting any form of parental care towards their young.

7. Can oviparous sharks control the placement of their egg capsules?

Yes, oviparous sharks have some control over the placement of their egg capsules. The female shark uses her mouth to grasp the egg capsule and attach it to a suitable location, such as rocks or coral reefs. This ensures the eggs are not easily swept away by currents and have a higher chance of survival.

8. How do viviparous sharks nourish their embryos?

Viviparous sharks nourish their embryos through a placental connection. The mother shark provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing embryos through this specialized organ, similar to how mammals nourish their unborn offspring.

9. Can sharks change their reproductive strategy?

While sharks generally exhibit consistent reproductive strategies within their species, some environmental factors can influence their reproductive behavior. For example, if the conditions for oviparity become unfavorable, some oviparous shark species may switch to viviparity, and vice versa.

10. What is the purpose of the yolk sac in shark eggs?

The yolk sac in shark eggs serves as the primary source of nourishment for the developing embryo. It contains essential nutrients that sustain the embryo’s growth and development until it hatches and becomes capable of independent feeding.

11. How long does it take for shark pups to become independent after birth?

Shark pups are born fully capable of swimming and hunting on their own. They must fend for themselves from the moment they are born. The exact time it takes for them to become fully independent can vary depending on the species, but it generally ranges from a few weeks to a few months.


Sharks employ different reproductive strategies, with some species laying eggs (oviparity) and others giving birth to live young (viviparity). These strategies are influenced by factors such as environmental conditions, size and growth rate, predation pressure, and the reproductive cycle of female sharks. Understanding the diverse reproductive behaviors of sharks helps us appreciate their adaptability and survival strategies in the vast oceans they inhabit.

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